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L’Opera d’Arte del mese – Novembre 2016

Pubblicato da
Lorenzo Ciotti
il 04 novembre 2016
Caravaggio e la Canestra di Frutta, dipinto ideale per il mese di Novembre, il mese dei morti

Novembre è il mese dei morti, dalle caldarroste davanti al camino, delle foglie degli alberi che cambiano colore e cadono. È un mese di profondo cambiamento e trasformazione. Le ombre si allungano, la luce si abbassa. Tutto si acquieta, le giornate diventano più fredde e buie.
Eppure il fascino che esprime Novembre è unico, perfetto per analizzare Canestra di Frutta, uno dei dipinti più celebri di Caravaggio, oggi conservato nella Pinacoteca Ambrosiana di Milano.

Non è un caso se questo mese prendiamo in esame il controverso e affascinante pittore Milanese, il quale è passato alla storia per i suoi splendidi dipinti, tanto quanto la sua vita turbolenta e misteriosa. Infatti, dal 12 Ottobre 2016 al 15 Gennaio 2017 va in scena alla National Gallery di Londra una delle mostre salienti della stagione: Beyond Caravaggio, esibizione che esplora l’influenza del pittore sui suoi contemporanei e gli artisti a lui antecedenti.

Michelangelo Merisi ottenne fama e gloria solo nel XX secolo, dopo un periodo buio. I suoi lavori, famosi per i giochi di ombra e luci, sono il risultato di due diversi fattori umani, sia fisici, sia emotivi. L’animo inquieto del pittore affrontò vicissitudini molto diverse durante la sua vita, compreso un omicidio durante una rissa, con annessa condanna a morte per lo stesso, dopo la quale dovette vivere in costante fuga per scampare alla giustizia.

L’artista, nelle sue prime opere, si fece notare per gli elaborai e splendidi particolari di nature morte, anche se la sola e completa che è giunta sino a noi è la Canestra di frutta della pinacoteca Ambrosiana, databile al periodo di apprendistato nella bottega dal Cavalier d'Arpino.

La frutta dipinta da Caravaggio si presenta in un perfetto stato armonico con i personaggi, mentre le foglie appassite, le quali, come si può osservare furono rappresentate in uno stato di maturazione avanzata, rappresentano un’atmosfera di decadenza autunnale. Tradizionalmente alle nature morte venivano associati significati allegorici, e in questo caso, l’appassire di frutta e foglie può considerarsi come un intimo rapporto di convivenza tra vita e morte.

La canestra raffigurata sul dipinto, olio su tela, da un’idea di precisione quasi fiamminga negli intrecci di vimini, dentro i quali vi si possono trovare frutti e foglie, molte delle quali tipiche del periodo autunnale. Ed è proprio la natura morta ad essere il soggetto protagonista assoluto dell’opera.

Il contrasto tra il canestro tridimensionale e lo sfondo bidimensionale, crea una spettacolare situazione, bilanciato nel suo complesso. I frutti rovinati dalle malattie, stanno a simboleggiare la vanità dell'esistenza umana, un bene effimero destinato a svanire nel tempo. Le foglie, come i frutti, di diverse stagioni richiamano un realismo soltanto apparente.

La luce sembra provenire da una fonte naturale, anche grazie all’espediente dello sfondo chiaro, e svela le gradazioni di colore che differenziano la frutta; è la frutta infatti ad essere la vera star dell’opera, esprimendo un significato ambiguo. Essa è all'apparenza fresca e deliziosa, ma facendo attenzione, si può notare come essa stia in realtà marcendo.

Considerando che Novembre è il penultimo mese dell'anno, abbiamo trovato perfetto inserire nella colonna mensile il dipinto di Caravaggio, il quale, come il suo creatore, è ancora in parte avvolto da un’aura di mistero che tutt’oggi affascina gli amanti dell’arte, e che li richiama a vedere i lavori di Merisi da tutto il mondo, in tutto il mondo.

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